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河流生態治理

2016-03-01 13:57


一、河道生態治理概念

河道生態治理是指在河道陸域控制線內,在滿足防洪、排澇及引水等河道基本功能的基礎上,通過人工修復措施促進河道水生態系統恢復,構建健康、完整、穩定的河道水生態系統的活動 。

二、治理步驟

步驟1: 確定生態河道治理的目標。當這一步完成時,應該描繪出一個總體的目的,或者是一個藍圖,勾勒出修復工程完成后河道是什么樣的。這樣一個可見的藍圖在生態河道治理過程中起著關鍵的指導作用。

步驟2: 確定生態河道治理的利益相關者。生態河道治理是流域管理的一部分。如前所述,河道有許多功能,需要根據河道功能,列出利益相關者,包括機構和公眾。

步驟3: 分析人類活動對河道功能的影響。對河道未受干擾之前的現狀進行描述,分析人類活動對河道生態系統和河道功能的影響。

步驟4:識別河道的主要天然資產和主要問題。生態河道治理也是保護和改善天然河道資產。資產就是河道已經具備的,并滿足相應河道功能目標的那些良好條件。許多河道資產都受到河道問題的威脅,或已經退化。在這一步中,要識別出河道的主要資產、退化資產和存在的主要問題。

步驟5: 確定生態河道治理的優先次序。河道的生態治理涉及不同的河段、不同的功能。而每個功能受關注的程度、需要修復的時間又不盡相同,因此應該首先確定生態河道治理的優先次序。需要注意的是,修復工程不應該總是從受損最嚴重的河段著手, 有時候也需要從現存的最好的河段開始。

步驟6: 制定保護資產和改善河道的策略和措施。確定優先河段后,列出保護和改善這些河段重要資產的所有方法。

步驟7:制定生態河道治理詳細而可度量的目標。對應于上一步到出的策略和措施,制定詳細的、可以度量的目標。

步驟8:分析目標的可行性。上一步的目標是切實可行的嗎?許多因素,如費用、政治、其他河道用戶的反對等等。都將可能改變原已確定的優先權和側重點。完成這一步后,要解決的問題才能最終決定。

步驟9:制定修復工程的詳細計劃。在第6步中,已經確定了解決問題的初步方法,在這一步需要進行詳細的設計。為了達到目標,需要做哪些具體的事情呢?可以什么也不做,可以進行規劃控制,甚至改善或重建整個河道。

步驟10:設計修復工程的評估方案。第7步中制定的可估量目標在此成為對工程進行評估的基礎。需要注意的是,并不是所有的評估都一定要求很詳細。

步驟11:組織修復工程的實施。為保證修復工程的實施,需要制定時間進度表,進行明確的任務分派,落實資金來源,組織項目評估。

步驟12:實施修復工程。只有實施了修復工程,才能使得對生態河道治理目標的藍圖變成現實(也可能沒有實現預定的藍圖)。在這一步驟中,需要運用那些在評估規劃中收集的資

、技術指標

1、底泥生態疏浚深度。城市河道底泥生態疏浚深度宜以0.3~0.5m為好;且疏浚深度誤差≦0.1m,疏浚底泥擴散距離≦0.5m。

2、疏浚設備。底泥密度<1.8g/cm2采用環保絞吸式疏浚船;底泥密度>1.8g/cm2,采用環保斗輪式疏浚船。城市河道宜選用小型設備。

3、疏浚的地點和范圍。應優先考慮污染淤積嚴重、重要城市的供水水源地取水口和重點風景旅游區以及對城市河道水生態系統影響較大的河段。

4、保護帶的劃定。疏浚區域可以布置成條田狀,隔一疏一,待疏浚帶植被4~5年自然繁衍更殖后,再疏生物保留帶。

5、適宜施工期。疏浚作業最佳施工期為冬初至春末。

6、排泥廠設計要求。采用封閉圍隔防滲漏處理,防止高濃度污水返流入河道中污染地下水。

7、尾水排放標準。尾水處理率>90%,SS質量濃度<150~200mg/L,或經小型凈化處理設施、氧化塘等處理達標后才準予排放。

8、河床基底的修復。建成向堤岸的一定邊坡的河床灘地結構或階梯結構、 曾鋪河床細卵石、種植河床微生物和改良河床基質材料等。

四、治理要求

1、 生態河道治理從適宜生物棲息的角度出發,全面考慮工程對水文、水深流速、底質、河道形態、斷面形式及材料等多方面生境因子的影響,構建適宜生物棲息及繁殖的生境條件。

2、生態河道治理宜盡量保留河道天然的形態及斷面,控制截彎取直,河道斷面寬度及形式避免均一化、單一化。

3、生態河道的護岸宜根據河道功能需要剛柔結合,因地制宜,護岸材料在滿足強度要求的情況下,選取具有較好透水性、有利于水體交換,適宜動植物生長的生態親和性較佳材料,優先選取當地天然材料。

4、河道生態綠化在滿足河道生態功能要求的前提下,宜盡量保留、利用河道兩側現有植被,合理配置不同習性的植物,營造植物群落結構及生態景觀多樣的植物帶;植物宜選擇土著種。

5、生態河道治理需對治理效果進行跟蹤和評估,提出改進建議和措施。


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