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土壤修復行業加速擴張,污染者付費打開新盈利空間

2019-04-22 16:49

今年是《土壤污染防治法》實施的第一年,土壤修復大戲已經開鑼。

2018年8月31日,全國人大通過《土壤污染防治法》。這是我國首次制定專門的法律來規范防治土壤污染,法律于2019年1月1日起施行。

近日,中國戰略性新興產業環保聯盟(下稱“中國環聯”)、中國環境保護產業協會相繼發布的研究報告認為,土壤修復行業必將迎來巨大的市場空間,土壤修復行業規模將加速擴張。包括場地修復、耕地修復、礦山修復等在內,土壤修復潛在總市場空間合計將超過5.2萬億。保守估計,2019年土壤修復市場空間在1571.5億元左右。

這份名為《土壤修復行業2018年度發展報告》于2月8日發布。報告認為,土壤修復行業市場潛力巨大,資金瓶頸成其最大發展阻礙。如何解決資金匱乏問題,將成為污染場地修復及再開發利用和土壤修復產業發展的關鍵。

中國環聯表示,依據“誰污染、誰治理”的原則,污染地塊治理與修復由造成土壤污染的單位和個人承擔。污染者付費模式是一個新型的盈利模式,這將成為一個從無到有的市場。

摸底土壤污染信息

根據原環境保護部、原國土資源部2014年發布的《全國土壤污染狀況調查公報》,全國土壤環境狀況總體不容樂觀,部分地區土壤污染較重,耕地土壤環境質量堪憂,工礦業廢棄地土壤環境問題突出。全國土壤總的點位超標率為16.1%。

公報分析稱,長期以來,由于我國經濟發展方式粗放,產業結構和布局不合理,污染物排放總量居高不下,部分地區土壤污染嚴重,對農產品質量安全和人體健康構成了嚴重威脅。調查結果顯示,工礦業、農業生產等人類活動和自然背景高是造成土壤污染或超標的主要原因。

第一財經記者從生態環境部了解到,2018年,生態環境部出臺了《工礦用地土壤環境管理辦法(試行)》,以及農用地和建設用地土壤污染風險管控標準。31個省(區、市)和新疆生產建設兵團完成農用地土壤污染狀況詳查并上報成果,共采集并分析測試70萬份樣品。26個省(區、市)建立了污染地塊聯動監管機制。

此外,生態環境部還聯合有關部門部署開展了涉鎘等重金屬行業污染耕地風險排查整治、耕地土壤環境質量類別劃分試點和全國污染地塊土壤環境管理信息系統應用,建成了全國土壤環境信息管理平臺。

1月18-19日召開的2019年全國生態環境保護工作會議上,生態環境部部長李干杰表示,今年,生態環境部將做好農用地詳查成果集成并向國務院報告詳查結果,穩妥推進企業用地調查。建立建設用地土壤污染風險管控和修復名錄,推進土壤污染綜合防治先行區建設和試點。

隨著國家對土壤修復行業的高度重視,在資金支持上力度逐年加大,增幅超過大氣和水污染防治。

數據顯示,2016年土壤污染防治專項資金數達112億元,比2016年執行數增加21.11億元。2017年土壤污染防治專項資金執行數為65.35億元,執行率同比減少41.66%,主要是因為土壤污染狀況詳查尚未完成,土壤污染底數不清,相關項目儲備不足,資金需求減少。

2018年,土壤污染防治專項資金預算數為65億元,與2017年執行數基本持平。結合2017年的預算結轉資金,2018年實際專項資金預算調整為111.65億元,基本與去年專項資金預算數相同。

中國環聯上述報告預計,土壤修復行業規模將加速擴張,保守估計2019年土壤修復市場空間在1571.5億元左右。

中國環境保護產業協會土壤與地下水修復專業委員會日前發布的《2018年土壤修復行業發展評述和2019年發展展望》報告也介紹,通過中國采購與招標網、中國采招網等公開途徑不完全統計,2018年土壤修復市場規模約100多億元,其中工業類污染場地修復工程仍占主要部分,合同額約70億元,而且資金規模愈來愈集中于大項目。

該委員會表示,《土壤污染防治法》的出臺將逐步推動土壤污染防治產業結構調整和優化。隨著公眾對土壤污染防治工作的關注上升,將促使污染場地修復項目、地下水修復項目持續增長。

多種商業模式逐漸成型

《土壤修復行業2018年度發展報告》介紹,土壤修復對于技術和資金要求都比較高,目前的商業模式主要有三種:

EPC模式,即政府出資,第三方企業治理。中國環聯介紹,這種模式主要用于工業場地修復,由于污染企業關停或搬遷,主體責任不明晰,需要政府來承接出資責任。企業通過EPC模式參與治理,修復后土地有增值空間,政府通過土地出讓來變現。

PPP模式(又稱岳塘模式)。該模式主要適用于城市工業場地污染的修復治理,即政府與社會資本合作,修復企業與政府成立合資公司,企業出資同時引入第三方社會資本,一起用于污染地塊的修復治理,待相關地塊修復好后,由合資公司負責進行開發利用,所得收益用于償付前期修復資金的本金、利息及合理的回報。

中國環聯上述報告介紹,該模式打破了行業發展的資金瓶頸,引入第三方資金,完善從修復到收益實現的機制,對于政府來說,改變了過去重治理過程、輕治理效果的做法。同時,該模式消除了因污染企業破產關停導致責任主體缺失、治理資金缺乏等問題,調動了企業在資金投入、技術研發等方面的積極性。

耕地流轉經營模式。該模式即公司針對鹽堿地與農戶簽訂承包合作協議,再通過相應的技術和藥劑進行改良,待達到適合種植后由修復企業經營或轉包,從土地的增產、增值中獲取一定的投資回報。

中國環聯介紹,EPC模式在我國目前比較多見,項目運營周期較短,風險小,企業一次性獲得收益。但項目外包后,修復成本由政府承擔,同時資金數額受到限制,而PPP模式則對治理企業規模要求較高。

中國環境保護產業協會土壤與地下水修復專業委員會將目前的土壤修復模式概括為三種:污染方付費模式、受益方付費模式和財政直接出資模式。

該委員會表示,隨著政策的不斷完善、技術的持續升級以及修復標準的逐步細化,行業壁壘將明顯提升,預計未來企業數量增速將放緩,先期進入土壤修復行業的龍頭企業具備更強的競爭力,一些在細分領域專業性強的技術企業也將脫穎而出。

(該文章轉載于微信企鵝號)



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