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這15條水處理知識,你知道多少?

2019-04-19 17:21

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1、你知道的預處理設備有哪些?

預處理設備有:機械過濾器、高效纖維過濾器、活性炭過濾器、精密過濾器、超濾、微濾、鈉離子軟化器、除鐵除錳過濾器、加藥裝置、原水箱、曝氣池。

2、你所知道的預除鹽設備有哪些?

預除鹽設備有電滲析裝置、反滲透裝置。

3、你所知道的深除鹽設備有哪些?

深除鹽設備有陰離子交換器、陽離子交換器、混合離子交換器、蒸餾裝置、EDI裝置。

4、反滲透裝置主要是由哪些設備組成?

反滲透裝置主要由高壓泵、高壓泵出口閘閥(手動或電動)、高低壓保護開關、 進水流量計(也可不加)、產水流量計、濃水流量計、產水電導儀、膜組件(壓 力容器、反滲透膜元件)、濃水電動閥、濃水截止閥、進水壓力表、段間壓力表、 濃水壓力表、產水壓力表、反滲透支架、反滲透控制盤、反滲透取樣盤、爆破膜以及相應的管道、卡箍、彎頭等。

5、電滲析有哪些優缺點?

電滲析的優點為:

1.能耗低,占地面積小。

2.操作簡單,噪音低。

3.出水水質穩定,在脫鹽過程中無相的變化。

4.污染環境小。

5.適用范圍較廣為 200-40000mg/h。

電滲析的缺點為:

1.安裝較為復雜。

2.脫鹽效果不太徹底一般為 75%。

3.水回收率低一般為 50%。

6、電滲析裝置由哪些部分組成?各部分功能和特點是什么?

電滲析裝置是由幾部分組成的,陰膜,陽膜,隔板,電極,夾緊裝置,防漏膠板,酸洗系統,流量計,壓力表,ABS 管材管件,閥門,可控硅整流柜。

陰膜、陽膜對水中離子具有的選擇透過性使系統有濃水,淡水,極水之分,即是裝置的脫鹽部分。

隔板的主要材料為聚丙烯,起著支撐陰羊膜并與之形成濃淡水室的作用。

電極主要形成離子交換膜所需的電場。電極由布水頭、多孔板、PVC 邊框組成。

夾緊裝置主要是固定陰陽離子交換膜、電極、隔板等使之成為一個整體。

防漏膠板是在電極和隔板之間的,起著防止系統在電極邊漏水的現象。

酸洗系統是整個裝置中不可缺少的部分。當電滲析裝置產生脫鹽率下降、產水量下降、操作壓力升高等不正常現象時應判斷系統是由于何種原因如結垢、無機物污堵、有機物污堵等構成的而采取相應的化學藥劑進行化學清洗。

可控硅整流柜是裝置的能量饋入部位,是將工頻交流電通過可控硅整流器件整流為電壓可調的直流電壓,加在電極上在膜堆內形成直流電場以牽引溶液中的陰陽離子產生定向移動。可控硅整流柜的主要參數為:整流電壓、工作電流以及整流功率。流量計、壓力表、ABS 管材 管件、閥門是電滲析的附屬配件,起著顯示電滲析裝置的各種運行參數、水室的接通以及水流方向的切換等作用。

7、電滲析的脫鹽原理是什么?

電滲析裝置中的陰陽離子交換膜具有選擇透過性,當溶液中的離子在電場作用下發生定向移動時,利用陰陽離子交換膜的選擇透過性而透過或不透過相應的交換膜在不同的水室中形成了濃水或淡水。

8、電滲析濃、淡、極水分部比例大致為多少?

電滲析裝置中的濃水、淡水、極水的分布比例大致為 4:4:2,因此在電滲析除鹽系統中節約極水的措施是非常有意義的;常用節約極水的措施有部分濃水充當極水后進行排放或采用極水循環;極水循環系統具體方式是軟化水或脫鹽水+NaCL 溶液充當極水循環。

9、濃水循環頻繁自動倒極系統是如何實現的?意義是什么?

在當前的水處理行業中,濃水循環頻繁自動倒極系統是以可編程控制器為控制核心,以系統產水工藝運行時間為控制函數,利用電動或氣動直通閥門、三通閥門來定時切換濃淡水的水流方向,使淡水始終流入產水箱,而濃水固定排入濃水循環箱。在水資源日益匱乏的今天,濃水循環頻繁自動倒極系統具有深遠的意義,第一該系統的水回收率較高可達到80%(視進水水質而定),在一些大型的水處理系統中節水的效果非常明顯。第二該系統的造價比較低,對系統進水水質的要求比較低,容易推廣(在一些對回收率要求較高而又不能夠投入較多資金的企業或廠礦的水處理項目中比較有競爭力)。

10、水處理系統工程中需要哪幾種水泵?水泵該如何選型?

水處理系統工程中大致需要普通型泵、增壓型泵、防腐蝕型泵。普通型泵一般選用IS 型鑄鐵水泵;增壓型水泵一般選用不銹鋼水泵如丹麥格蘭夫進口高壓泵(根據具體情況而定);防腐蝕型水泵一般選用IH 型化工泵或工程朔料水泵。

不同廠家的水泵型號都有所不同,首先根據系統的工藝要求選擇水泵的流量;其次根據工藝要求選擇水泵的揚程(1公斤約等于10 米揚程,1MPa 約等于10 公斤);再次根據工藝要求來選擇水泵的材質(主要是指水泵泵頭的材質);最后根據各種水泵的耗電量來選擇即能達到工藝要求又能節省系統能耗的水泵。

11、水處理系統中幾個基本概念:TDS、DSI、LSI、KSP

TDS :總溶解固形物(一般和礦化度近似)

SDI :污染指數是衡量系統預處理效果的指標,SDI<6.7,對深井水(well water) 而言,反滲透裝置對進水 SDI 要求為 SDI<5。

LSI :Langelier Saturation Index, Langelier 指數是衡量反滲透裝置結垢傾向的,LSI=0,系統無結垢、無腐蝕傾向;LSI>0,系統有結垢傾向;LSI<0,系 統有腐蝕傾向。對反滲透系統而言,LSI 值要求不大于 0。系統的 LSI 值可用加酸來降低,也可減少系統水回收率來降低。

Ksp :溶解度平衡常數,反滲透裝置對原水中的溶劑、溶質選擇透過,在濃水側 因溶劑的減少而產生了濃縮,當濃水側溶解固形物濃縮出現因濃度積大于溶解度 平衡常數時就會結晶析出,對反滲透裝置帶來危害。增加系統的溶解度平衡常數 可用加阻垢劑的方式,阻垢劑能夠增加溶解固形物的溶解度。

12、電滲析的濃差極化現象是什么?濃差極化危害有哪些?

當電滲析的工作電流超過極限電流時在陰離子交換膜與淡水的界面處產生水電解,生成了 H+和 OH-離子,使這些離子參與了電荷的傳遞時即產生了極化現象。極化的危害簡而言之是使一種電能消耗在與除鹽無關的電解水上,因而造成電能 的浪費,而且 OH-離子進入濃水室后和 CO32-及 CaCO3 水垢,使膜和電滲析的性能下降。極化時脫鹽室膜面上電解質離子的濃度比主體溶液濃度低得多,引起很高的極化電位,而濃水室膜面濃度則比主體溶液濃度高得多,使水中易形成沉淀的離子在膜面上產生沉淀,其結果是:膜對表觀電阻明顯增大,電流密度下降, 脫鹽率降低。電流效率下降,因為很大一部分電流消耗在水的電解上,以產生 H+和 OH-離子代消耗的反離子來傳遞電荷。若陰膜先極化,脫鹽室水離解產生的 H+離子透過陽膜進入濃水室,使脫鹽室膜面呈堿性,容易使 Ca2+、Mg2+離子和 CO32-形成 CaCO3 沉淀。若陽膜先極化,脫鹽室水解產生的 OH-離子透過陰膜進 入濃縮室,使被陰膜阻擋的 Ca2+、Mg2+離子容易形成結垢。膜面上形成的沉淀 除了是膜電阻增加、單位產水電耗量明顯增加、水流阻力升高以外,還因溶液PH 值變化使離子交換膜受到腐蝕而縮短了使用壽命。

13、如何控制濃差極化現象?

1.嚴格控制操作電流,是電滲析在低于極限電流密度的條件下運行。

2.強化電滲析隔室中的傳遞過程,例如采用湍流效果好的隔網,高溫電滲析。

3.采用定期酸洗,加入防垢劑,倒換電極等措施消除濃差極化現象產生的沉淀。

4.可采用適當的預處理來改善系統進水水質。

14、紫外線殺菌器的特點是什么?

紫外線殺菌器的特點如下:

1.紫外線殺菌速度快、效率高、效果好。

2.紫外線照射不會改變水的物理、化學性質,對純水不會帶如附加物所引入的污染。

3.能適用于各種水的流量下使用,操作簡單,使用方便,只需定期地清洗石英玻璃管套。

4.體積小,輕便、耗電低、壽命長。

15、影響紫外線殺菌器效果的因素和注意事項是什么?

影響紫外線殺菌效果的因素是紫外線的強度、紫外線光譜的波長和照射時間。在使用紫外線殺菌器時應注意的事項為:

安裝位置:紫外線安裝的位置離使用點越近越好,但也應留有從一端裝進或抽出石英管套和更換燈管的操作空間。

流量:在同一殺菌器內,當紫外線的輻射能量一定,水中細菌含量變化不大時通過殺菌器的水流量大小對殺菌效果有顯著的影響。

水的物理化學性質:水的色度、濁度、總鐵含量對紫外線都有不同程度的吸收,其結果使殺菌的效果降低。

燈管功率:燈管的點燃功率對殺菌效率影響很大。

燈管周圍的介質溫度:紫外線燈管輻射光譜能量與燈管管壁的溫度有關。

石英管套:適應管套的質量和壁厚與紫外線的透過率有關,石英管套的純度高,效率好。

水層厚度:水層厚度對殺菌效果有很大的關系。


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