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土壤修復市場亂象頻生亟待清理

2018-04-26 11:13

  近年來隨著經濟發展轉型升級、產業結構和布局優化調整,很多化工、冶金等傳統污染企業搬遷或關閉。由此,工業污染場地不斷增多。

  一片片未經修復的污染場地如同一顆顆定時化學炸彈,一旦大面積爆發,必將對國家和地區的發展與穩定造成難以估量的影響。對工業污染場地進行修復是其再利用的前提條件,在我國許多地區特別是東部和南部經濟發達地區,對工業污染場地進行修復已成為政府與市場的迫切需求。

  尚在起步,已生亂象

  面對污染場地修復(包括土壤及地下水污染修復)帶來的巨大市場,眾多資本摩拳擦掌、躍躍欲試。對此,許多人只看到了土壤修復市場這塊“肥肉”,卻忽略了伴隨而來的風險與責任。相較于歐美40多年的發展,現階段我國土壤修復產業尚屬于發展初期的新興行業,沒有很好的人才隊伍和技術儲備,更缺乏工程經驗、相關的法律法規標準及環境管理框架體系,土壤修復行業幾乎處于“草莽期”,面臨多種無法預知的風險。揭開土壤修復市場的“神秘面紗”,我們看到一些亂象已顯現出來,需要警惕。

 一是無序搶占市場。當前,土壤修復市場規范尚未建立健全,大量沒有資質、缺乏經驗與責任感的修復公司進入市場。這些公司“沒有金剛鉆,也攬磁器活”,為了在土壤修復市場“掘金”,在既沒專業人才和技術,也沒有設備和資金的情況下,憑關系承攬土壤修復工程,甚至先攬到工程再成立修復公司,工程拿到手后轉手交給別人去干。工程被層層轉包,質量難以保障。

二是惡性低價競標。土壤修復工程十分費錢,在資金保障不到位的情況下,預期的修復成效很難達到。但當前土壤修復項目招標中存在著惡意壓價、低價中標的現象,有的項目報價甚至低于市場成本。例如,某項目地方政府的評估價為48萬元,其中成本價40萬元,利潤8萬元。而有的企業報價只有20多萬元,最后中標價竟然只有15萬元。修復成效可想而知。

三是急于求成。所謂“慢工出細活”,對土壤修復來說更是如此,有些污染場地的修復時間甚至需長達數年。但目前整個修復行業的“節奏”偏快,政府為了及早開發利用污染場地,希望土壤修復工程能立竿見影,往往只給短短數月的修復時間。時間太短、工程進度太快,往往導致很多污染問題得不到根本解決,修復成了走過場。

是對過程疏于監管。一些土壤修復企業一味追求趕進度、節省成本,施工過程十分粗放,而目前土壤修復工程的監管部門尚不明確,有的項目幾乎無人監管,土壤修復甚至造成了二次污染。

凡此種種,不一而足。與大氣污染和水污染治理相比,土壤污染修復具有重投資、重技術的行業屬性,以及隱蔽性、復雜性、長期性、累積性、不均勻性和難可逆性等特點。總體來看,我國土壤修復行業存在諸多亟需引起重視的問題,嚴重制約土壤修復市場的健康發展。

目前來看,應對污染土壤建立數字化檔案,統一管理,對不同污染程度的土地采用不同的利用和修復方式,對不同利用方式的土壤堅持不同的修復標準

一是努力形成合力,力避孤軍奮戰。環保部門作為國家規定的土壤污染治理與修復的牽頭部門,應切忌大包大攬,力避孤軍奮戰。要著力構建多部門參與、分工協作、職責明確的污染土壤修復監督與管理體系,從而保障污染土壤修復產業的健康發展。

是加強過程監管,力戒放任市場。要創新工程監理與環境監理并行的雙監理機制,注重環境風險管控,阻止污染物再次遷移轉換。經過修復的土壤,應待第三方檢測通過后,再進行回填,嚴防修復過程中的二次污染,保證修復工程對人體健康、水體沒有影響。要引導企業加強自律,自覺做良心工程。要構建并嚴格執行土壤污染治理與修復終身責任制,出臺并落實有關責任追究辦法。

是組織事后評估,嚴防事畢禍在。要本著“一次修復永久負責”的精神開展污染土壤修復。要組織第三方專家團隊對污染土壤修復結果進行檢測認定,將其作為整個修復工程必不可少的環節。由專家團隊檢測認定修復是否符合標準,并由專家在書面結論上簽字。同時,應明確專家對自己作出的結論負責,甚至對自己的簽字負民事和刑事責任,以避免專家驗收環節“放水”,確保污染土壤修復不煮“夾生飯”、不走過場,確保凡是通過專家驗收的修復場地都能放心利用。

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